Walt Whitman

Samuel Hollyer of a daguerreotype by Gabriel Harrison (New York July 1854)

The Walt Whitman Archive is located at the Center for Digital Research in the Humanities at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Edited by Whitman scholars Ed Folsom & Kenneth M. Price, the archive is working to provide access to facsimile and e-text versions of all the editions of Leaves of Grass (1855, 1856, 1860, 1867, 1871-72, 1881-82, 1891-92.) Also available is an extended biography of Whitman by Folsom and Price, the complete volume of contemporary reviews of Whitman’s work; selected critical essays; all known photographs of Whitman, with annotations; introductions to each edition of Leaves, reprinted from Walt Whitman: An Encyclopedia and, with the Walt Whitman Quarterly Review, a comprehensive bibliography of books, essays, notes, and reviews about Whitman.

The searchable bibliography contains articles, books, chapters of books, and poems about Whitman, published from 1975 to the present. There are thousands of entries in the database, most of which are annotated. The archive also includes editions of Whitman’s works printed outside the US: including the first two British editions of Whitman’s poetry and the first full-length Spanish-language translation as well as two Russian translations of Whitman. Finally, the archive makes available sample manuscripts, including Whitman’s drafts of “Live Oak, with Moss,” the “Calamus” sequence, as well as links to Whitman’s recently recovered notebooks from the 1850s and 1860s at the Library of Congress.





Selected Reference Sources in the Mason Library

Bohan, Ruth L. Looking into Walt Whitman: American art, 1850-1920. 2006. PS3242.A66 B64 2006

Blake, David Haven. Walt Whitman and the culture of American celebrity. 2006. PS3231 .B58

Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman. 2005. PS3231 .R475  

Walt Whitman: a documentary volume. Ed. Joel Myerson. 2000. PN451 .D5 v.224

Epstein, Daniel Mark. Lincoln and Whitman: parallel lives in Civil War Washington. 2004. E457.2 .E67

Loving, Jerome. Walt Whitman : the song of himself. 1999. PS3231.L68 1999

Walt Whitman: an encyclopedia. Eds. J.R. LeMaster, Donald D. Kummings. PS3230 .W35 1998

Walt Whitman—the measure of his song. Eds. Jim Perlman, Ed Folsom & Dan Campion. 1998. PS3238 .W37

Greenspan, Ezra. Walt Whitman and the American reader. 1990. PS3237.4.U6 G74

Bauerlein, Mark. Whitman and the American idiom. 1991. PS3238 .B34 1991

Gardner, Thomas. Discovering ourselves in Whitman: the contemporary American long poem. 1989. PS310.S34 G37

Kaplan, Justin. Walt Whitman, a life. 1982, PS3231 .K3

Allen, Gay Wilson. The solitary singer; a critical biography of Walt Whitman. 1955. PS3231 .A69

Leaves of grass : the sesquicentennial essays. Eds. Susan Belasco, Ed Folsom, & Kenneth M. Price. 2007. PS3238 .L34 2007

Garman, Bryan K. A race of singers : Whitman’s working-class hero from Guthrie to Springsteen. 2000. ML3477 .G36

Reynolds, David S. Walt Whitman’s America : a cultural biography. 1995. PS3231 .R48

Folsom, Ed. Walt Whitman’s native representations. 1994. PS3242.A54 F65 1994.

Erkkila, Betsy and Jay Grossman. Breaking Bounds: Whitman and American Cultural Studies. New York: Oxford UP, 1996. PS3238 .B74 1996

Matthiessen, F. O. American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman. New York: Oxford UP, 1941. PS201 .M3 1966

The Nineteenth Century: Origins and Reception

Milton Hindus, ed. Walt Whitman: The Critical Heritage, “Introduction: The Battle for Recognition: 1855–60,” 1–20.  PS3238 .H5 1971b   Whitman’s Anonymous Self-Reviews” (1856), 34–48 “Thoreau on Whitman” (1856) 67–68 “It is the healthiest book, morally” (1859), 97–98 “Henry James on Walt Whitman” (1865), 110–14 “Anne Gilchrist on Whitman” (1870), 137–41 “A Belated Appreciation” (1873), 152–54 “Peter Bayne on Whitman” (1875), 156–78 “William James on Whitman” (1895), 240–45 William Dean Howells on Whitman” (1895), 246–47 “John Burroughs on Whitman” (1896), 248–51

The Twentieth Century: Reception and Legacy

“Santayana on Whitman” (1900) Randall Jarrell, “Some Lines on Whitman,” A Century of Whitman Criticism, 216–30. PS3238 .M44 1969

Allen Ginsberg, “Supermarket in California” and “America”

Muriel Rukeyser, “A Culture in Conflict,” The Life of Poetry, 61–84. PN1031 .R75 1996

Hart Crane, “Letter to Allen Tate” and “General Aims and Theories,” The Complete Poems and Selected Letters and Prose of Hart Crane. PS3505 .R272 1966a

John Berryman, “‘Song of Myself’”: Intention and Substance,” The Freedom of the Poet, 227–44

Gary Snyder, “Walt Whitman’s Old ‘New World,’” A Place in Space: Ethics, Aesthetics, Watersheds

Mary Oliver, “Some Thoughts on Whitman,” Winter Hours: Prose, Prose Poems, and Poems.  PS3565.L5 W56 1999.

Louis Sullivan, The Autobiography of an Idea.  NA737.S9 A3 1949.

Louis Sullivan, “The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered,” Kindergarten Chats and Other Writings.  NA2560 .S82.

James E. Miller. Jr. “Whitman’s Multitudinous Poetic Progeny: Particular and Puzzling Instances,” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 185–200

William H. Rueckert, “Kenneth Burke’s Encounters with Walt Whitman,” Encounters with Kenneth Burke Kenneth M. Price, “Whitman, Dos Passos, and ‘Our Storybook Democracy,’” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 217–25

George B. Hutchinson, “The Whitman Legacy and the Harlem Renaissance,” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 201–16

Brian K. Carman, “Introduction: Be Radical—But Not Too Damned Radical” and “For the Workingman’s Sake: Imagining a Working-Class Hero,” A Race of Singers: Whitman’s Working-Class Hero from Guthrie to Springsteen.  ML3477 .G36 2000.

Alan Trachtenberg, “The Politics of Labor and the Poet’s Work: A Reading of ‘A Song for Occupations,’” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 120–32

Vivian Pollak, “’In Loftiest Spheres’: Whitman’s Visionary Feminism,” Breaking Bounds: Whitman and American Cultural Studies, eds. Betsy Erkkila and Jay Grossman, 92–111.  PS3238 .B74 1996.

Betsy Erkkila, “Whitman and the Homosexual Republic,” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 153–71

George Kateb, “Whitman and the Culture of Democracy,” The Inner Ocean: Individualism and Democratic Culture

Milton Hindus, ed. Walt Whitman: The Critical Heritage, “An English Reaction” (1856), 55–60 “Review of the London Edition” (1868), 131–34

Walt Whitman and the World, eds. Ed Folsom and Gay Wilson Allen.  PS3238 .W356 1995.

“Gerard Manley Hopkins on Whitman” (1882), 195–98

“John Addington Symonds on Whitman” (1893), 224–29

“Basil de Selincourt on Whitman” (1914), 271–84

“M. Wynn Thomas, “Whitman in the British Isles,” 11–20;

M. Forster, “The Beauty of Life” (1911);

H. Lawrence, “Letter to Henry Savage, December 22, 1913” (1913), 52–53

Denis Donoghue, “Walt Whitman” (1975), 65

John Bayley, “Songs of a Furtive Self: Whitman” (1984), 67–68

Tom Paulin, “Minotaur: Poetry and the Nation State” (1991), 69–70

Whitman and the Spanish-Speaking World

Fernando Alegría, “Whitman in Spain and Latin America,” !” 71–95

José Martí, “The Poet Walt Whitman” (1887), 96–106

Rubén Darío, “Walt Whitman” 1890), 106–07

Cebría Montoliú, “Walt Whitman’s Philosophy” (1909), 107–12

Miguel de Unamuno, “Adamic Song” (1930); 113–15

Jorge Luis Borges, Camden, 1892” (1966), 126

Jorge Guillén, “My Relationship with Walt Whitman” (1971), 127

Maria Clara Bonetti Paro, “Whitman in Brazil,” 128–36

Gilberto Freire, “Camerado Whitman” (1948), 137–46

Roger Asselineau, “Whitman in Portugal,” 147–48

Susan M. Brown, “The Case of Fernando Pessoa,” 148–5

Fernando Pessoa, “Salutation to Walt Whitman” (1915), 154–59

Federico García Lorca, “Oda a Walt Whitman/Ode to Walt Whitman”

Mario Vargas Llosa, “Why Literature? The Premature Obituary of the Book,” The New Republic

Sylvia Molloy, “His America, Our America: José Martí Reads Whitman,” Breaking Bounds: Whitman and American Cultural Studies, eds. Betsy Erkkila and Jay Grossman, 83–91

Whitman in Europe, India, China, and Japan

Roger Asselineau, “The European Roots of Leaves of Grass,” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 51–60

Walter Grünzweig, “Whitman in the German Speaking Countries,” 160–72

Ferdinand Freiligrath, “Walt Whitman” (1868), 172–76 Johannes Schlaf, “Walt Whitman (1892), 176–86

Hermann Hesse, “Walt Whitman’s Leaves Of Grass” (1904), 186–87

Gustav Landauer, “Walt Whitman” (1907) 189–93

Herman Bahr, “Walt Whitman” (1919), 193–201

Thomas Mann, “Letter to Hans Reisiger” (1922), 201

Hans Reisiger, “The Heartbeat of True Democracy” (1922), 202–09

Walter Grünzweig, “‘Teach Me Your Rhythm’: The Poetics of German Lyrical Responses to Whitman,” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 226–39

Malcom Cowley, “Song of Myself and Indian Philosophy,” A Century of Whitman Criticism, Edwin Haviland Miller, ed., 231–45

K. Chari, “Whitman in India,” Walt Whitman and the World, 396–405

K. Chari, “Whitman Criticism in the Light of Indian Poetics,” Walt Whitman: The Centennial Essays, Ed Folsom, ed., 240–50

Giuyou Huang, “Whitman in China,” Walt Whitman and the World, 406–421

Li Yeguang, “To Whitman” (1981), 422–25, and “Walt Whitman in China” (1988), 425–28

Takashi Kodaira and Alfred H. Marks, “Whitman in Japan,” 429–35